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# Gravitational Physics

## Explore Newton's law of gravity and unpack its universe of consequences.

Here we lay out Newton's law of gravity and crack open the universe of consequences that spring from it. On the journey we'll come to understand planetary phenomena like tides and atmospheres, the rich geometry of heavenly bodies and their motion, and the engineering considerations of space travel.

By the end of this course, you’ll be able to code simulations to explore applied problems using Python, derive pieces of general relativity, and understand where Newton’s law starts to buckle.

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1. 1

### Introduction to Gravity

Get acquainted with the basics of gravitation through a series of thought experiments and test them against real astronomical data.

1. #### Explore: What is Mass?

In this puzzle, one mass is real and the other is an illusion. Try to tell the difference.

2. #### Explore: Mass Dependence

An apple clocked Newton on the head, and his theory of gravity was born.

3. #### Explore: Distance Dependence

Discover the form of gravitational force by observing the cycle of the Moon.

4. #### Apply: Heavenly Orbits

Use data from the moons of Jupiter to complete the gravitational force law.

2. 2

### Newtonian Gravity

Newton's greatest idea unified the physics of the heavens and Earth. Here we introduce Newton's theory, and then take him to meet Einstein.

1. Included with

#### Cavendish's Experiment

You don't need a planet to see gravity at work — just build a torsion pendulum in your garage.

2. Included with

#### Atmospheric Thickness

Predict the height of the atmosphere on a neutron star — with shockingly good accuracy.

3. Included with

#### Escape Velocity

Throw a ball fast enough from Earth, and it'll never return. What can this teach us about black holes?

4. Included with

#### Ocean Tides

The tide goes in, the tide goes out — and there's never a miscommunication.

3. 3

### Gravitational Fields

Here we reimagine the force of gravity as a Universe-filling field, and develop powerful methods to solve hard problems.

1. Included with

#### Gravitational Energy

Get a firmer grasp on gravity using an energy approach.

2. Included with

#### Simulating the g-Field of a Sphere

Write Python code to experiment with many-body gravitational fields.

3. Included with

#### Gravitational Pendulum

How long would it take to fall through the center of the Earth, from one side to the other?

4. Included with

#### Gravitational Ring Ride

Power a looping roller coaster through Earth's core with a gravitational field.

4. 4

### Keplerian Orbits

The eternal dance of celestial bodies in the night sky spawned science as we know it. In this chapter, we develop the tools to predict them.

1. Included with

#### Circular Orbits

Join Lonely Walter as he plays catch with himself.

2. Included with

#### The Two-body Problem

Why does Earth orbit the Sun, and not the other way around?

3. Included with

#### Equations of Orbital Motion

These two equations describe a universe of possibilities.

4. Included with